Here you will find a set of terms, words and concepts that relate to advocacy, communications, strategy, immunisation and vaccines.
A strategic effort to achieve change by creating political commitment and an ‘enabling’environment.
Communications more precisely indicates developing and distributing messages and information about an organisation or issue through a variety of channels, products and tools, such as: brochures, factsheets and posters, the web and social media, or the traditional media, for example.
Set 1: TERMS FOR PEOPLE/GROUPS:
Chain of decision-makers
Series of people with the formal power or authority to make the desired change.
A person (or group of people) belonging to any professional or social background voluntarily speaking-up positively and actively to promote vaccines and immunisation at various levels (local, national, regional, international).
The person with the formal power or authority to make the desired change.
People or groups who can have a compelling impact or influence on the actions, opinions, or behaviour of decision-makers.
Individuals, organisations, or groups that convey a message to a specific target audience.
A person or group responsible for or involved in formulating policies.
The GVAP identifies groups of immunisation stakeholders who must engage to improve immunisation: Governments; health professionals; academia; manufacturers and individuals and communities; global agencies (such as WHO, UNICEF and Gavi); development partners; civil society (including professional associations); the private sector and the media.
Person or group who has the ability to take a desired decision or action, or to influence it. The primary target audience is the decision-maker or person with the authority or power to make the desired decision or take action.
SET 2: ADVOCACY, COMMUNICATIONS AND STRATEGY TERMS
Desired ultimate change/accomplishment/outcome providing a solution to an issue.
Desired accomplishment or outcome that will contribute to the overall goal. It is a step towards your advocacy goal.
A planning process to determine a vision, goals, objectives and an implementation plan that will enable the necessary change to be achieved.
The change needed to see to bridge the gap between the problem and solution.
The medium used in the transmission of messages from one party to another, such as the media, a website, an email, etc.
Communications products and tools
Concrete, tangible items that convey messages, such as brochures, posters, blogs and videos.
Assessment of the success and performance of activities and the impact of a particular strategy, programme or policy, which generally takes a longer-term view or time period.
Something missing from a situation or a system that prevents it from being complete or working to its best effect or efficiency.
A process to identify where the challenges and opportunities lie and what change is needed.
A method used for getting people’s attention, or interested in and attracted to an issue or idea.
Plan mapping out and determining when, where, how and by whom advocacy activities are conducted. Key components of an implementation plan include: the description of the activities; target audiences; outputs; outcome; indicators; responsible staff/org; partners; a timeline; and tentative costs.
A concrete measure that provides a reliable basis for assessing achievement, change or performance. A unit of information measured over time that can help show changes and progress towards achieving goals and objectives.
An ongoing, continuous function, using indicators, that aims to verify whether planned and implemented activities are being properly carried out and having the desired impact.
Something or someone that obstructs or hinders progress.
A time or set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something (i.e. to conduct advocacy efforts).
Person or group(s) in strong disagreement with a plan, a policy, an issue, etc. which is usually shown in active attempts to prevent something.
A final product or service delivered to end users through a strategy, plan or project.
A final result of a process or an activity. It is a synonym of an accomplishment or a result.
A relationship between individuals, organisations or groups that is characterised by mutual cooperation towards the achievement of a specified goal.
The determination of an individual political actor to do and say things that will produce a desired outcome.
Information that is not easily captured in numerical form (although qualitative data can be quantified). Qualitative data typically consist of words and normally describes people’s opinions, knowledge and attitudes or behaviours.
Information measured or measurable by, or concerned with, quantity, and expressed in numerical form. Quantitative data typically consist of numbers.
A vision that is shared among stakeholders and/or partners.
A particular method or plan for achieving something.
Theory of change
A framework to build a clear and shared vision of the future, highlighting the process and the intermediate steps and changes needed to reach a longer-term goal or vision.
A clear description of the future that all stakeholders and partners want to create.
SET 3: IMMUNISATION AND VACCINE TERMS
Organised events and efforts to immunise a population or group of people with one or more vaccines in a defined period of time. Immunisation campaigns can greatly reduce person-to-person transmission of contagious diseases and are an effective complement to routine immunisation for accelerating disease control efforts.
A comprehensive Multi-Year Plan (cMYP) for immunisation is a single Government plan that consolidates and coordinates several immunisation activities across government ministries and sectors. Gavi requires countries to submit a cMYP along with the standard proposal form when applying for Gavi support.
Gavi’s co-financing policy requires countries to pay for a portion of their vaccines themselves and institutionalise vaccine spending in national budgets and health planning. This helps put implementing countries on a path to financial sustainability.
A system used for keeping and distributing vaccines at the correct temperature so they remain sterile and potent until they reach the end-user. It consists of a series of cold storage and transport links, such as refrigerators, cold boxes and vaccine carriers with cool packs.
Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI)
or National Immunisation Programme (NIP)
The EPI or NIP is the immunisation programme
of the Ministry of Health charged with preventing disease, disability, and death from vaccine-preventable diseases in children and adults.
Fully immunised child
Gavi is proposing that a new indicator be developed – the fully immunised child – to measure how many children receive all 11 vaccines globally recommended by the World Health Organization. That would address the need for a better assessment of the coverage of vaccines and the strength of health and immunisation systems, but also an indicator of equity and human rights.
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (previously called the GAVI Alliance
A public-private global health partnership committed to saving children’s lives and protecting people’s health by increasing access to immunisation in poor countries. The Alliance brings together developing country and donor governments, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry in both industrialised and developing countries, research and technical agencies, civil society organisations, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other private philanthropists.
GAVI Alliance Strategy 2011-2015
In June 2010, the GAVI Alliance Board approved the GAVI Alliance Strategy for 2011-2015. The strategy is articulated around four goals: (i) accelerate the uptake and use of underused and new vaccines, (ii) contribute to strengthening the capacity of integrated health systems to deliver immunisation, (iii) increase the predictability of global financing and improve the sustainability of national financing for immunisation, and (iv) shape vaccine markets.
Gavi Strategy 2016-2020
In June 2014, the GAVI Alliance Board approved
the Strategy for 2016-2020. It has four goals: (i) accelerate equitable uptake and coverage of vaccines, (ii) increase effectiveness and efficiency
of immunisation delivery as an integrated part of strengthened health systems, (iii) improve sustainability of national immunisation programmes, (iv) shape markets for vaccines and other immunisation products. The new framework also includes four ‘strategic enablers’: (i) in-country leadership management & coordination, (ii) advocacy, (iii) resource mobilisation, and (iv) monitoring & evaluation.
Gavi Civil Society Organisations (CSO) Constituency
A platform of over 300 civil society organisations worldwide to support Gavi’s mission as service providers and as local, national, regional and global advocates, and to provide links with communities in Gavi eligible countries.
Health system strengthening (HSS)
Gavi’s HSS support is designed to help countries identify, prioritise and overcome health system bottlenecks and barriers to the delivery of immunisation and other child health packages, in the context of the national health plan. The health sector coordination committee decides how HSS funds will be allocated.
Health Systems Strengthening (HSS) platforms
Coalitions of national CSO Constituency members supporting effective national and sub-national engagement in immunisation and health system strengthening. There are currently 23 Gavi CSO HSS platforms worldwide.
Global Immunisation Vision and Strategy (GIVS)
A 10-year plan (2006-2015) developed by WHO and UNICEF in consultation with the broader health and immunisation community. The four main approaches are (1) to protect more people in a changing world; (2) to introduce new vaccines and technologies; (3) to integrate immunisation, other linked health interventions and surveillance in the health systems context; and (4) to immunise in the context of global interdependence.
Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI)
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is a public-private partnership led by national governments and spearheaded by the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Its goal
is to eradicate polio worldwide. GPEI is currently leading a global effort to eradicate polio, known as The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018.
The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)
Endorsed by the 194 Member States of the World Health Assembly in May 2012, the GVAP is a new roadmap to prevent, by 2020, millions of deaths through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all communities by reinforcing five goals. The GVAP aims to strengthen routine immunisation to meet vaccination coverage targets; accelerate control of vaccine-preventable diseases with polio eradication as the first milestone; introduce new and improved vaccines and spur research and development for the next generation
of vaccines and technologies.
Health sector coordination committee (HSCC)
A health sector coordination committee (HSCC), or its equivalent, is the highest-level group that helps to support programmes related to the health sector in a developing country. The HSCC is responsible for the coordination and monitoring of the National Health Sector Plan. In addition to the national Government, this group usually includes agencies (bilateral and multilateral) and civil society organisations.
The Interagency Coordination Committee (ICC)
A key coordinating mechanism for immunisation services in developing countries. The ICC is usually chaired by the Ministry of Health, and membership includes development partners such as WHO, UNICEF, nongovernmental organisations and donor governments. Gavi requires ICC signatures on applications for new and underused vaccine support (NVS), immunisation services support (ISS) and injection safety support (INS) applications and annual progress reports.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Adopted in 2000, MDGs are global and national commitments to reduce poverty and promote human development. There are eight goals each with a number of targets to be met by 2015. Gavi contributes primarily to meeting MDG 4, which aims to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, and MDGs 5 and 6 – mainly through its support to health system strengthening. However, immunisation also provides health benefits that accrue to all the MDGs.
National health plan
A national health plan (or equivalent) brings together different programmes related to health together under one plan. It usually lasts five years and includes, for example, schedules for national immunisation and HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes. It is drafted, coordinated and monitored by a health sector coordination committee. Gavi requires countries to submit a national health sector plan when applying for health system strengthening support.
National Immunisation Days (NIDs)
A supplement to ongoing routine immunisation, their purpose is to produce a rapid boost to immunity or reach un-reached populations with strategies such as immunisation booths, house-to-house outreach and mobile teams used to cover populations that are difficult to reach.
New and underused vaccines (NVS)
Gavi support for new and underused vaccines (NVS) supports the accelerated introduction of life-saving vaccines in a country’s routine immunisation programme. From 2011, countries with DTP3 coverage above 70% qualify to apply for the following vaccines, provided they are not already part of the routine immunisation schedule: hepatitis B vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, measles vaccine (second dose), pneumococcal vaccine, pentavalent vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, yellow fever vaccine (for routine immunisation in countries at risk, regardless of DTP3 coverage).
National Immunisation Technical Advisory Group (NITAG)
A body of experts providing guidance to national policy-makers and programme managers to enable them to make evidence-based immunisation-related policy and programme decisions. Also sometimes known as an ITAG or NTAGI.
Reach Every District (RED)
A WHO strategy that aims to achieve 80% immunisation coverage in all districts and 90% nationwide in all WHO member states. RED aims to immunise every infant with all vaccines included in the countries’ national immunisation schedules. The strategy focuses on building capacity from district level upward to maximise access to all vaccines.
Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs)
SIAs are part of a range of immunisation strategies offered outside the usual parameters of routine immunisation programmes (see also campaigns). They include strategies such as child health days, which can be used to offer supplemental doses of a vaccine or reach children who were not previously reached, and are an effective adjunct to routine immunisation for accelerating disease control efforts. SIAs also provide the opportunity to deliver additional vaccines or other health interventions, such as vitamin A capsules to strengthen the child’s immune system, deworming tablets and insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria, to a large group of individuals.
SET 4: COMMUNICATIONS AND ADVOCACY TERMS
In the global health field, you will come across a wide range of terms and approaches to communications and advocacy. They can be confusing, so for clarity, here are some of the terms and what kind of communications or advocacy they refer to.
Strategic effort to achieve change by creating political commitment and an ‘enabling environment’. For strengthened routine immunisation: necessary policies and laws, government infrastructures such as health systems or immunisation delivery systems, budgets and government financing, community engagement and support. It always has as its target public decision makers, at all levels from community to national, or even international.
Community mobilisation (CM)
A strategic effort, often involving a broad coalition of campaigners, organisations and importantly, communities themselves, to raise awareness, increase knowledge and change perceptions about a health issue by working to solve problems through the community itself.
Education, Information and Communication (EIC)
EIC involves creating communications materials, such as posters, brochures and content, to educate and inform specific population groups, individuals, communities and healthcare workers about healthy behaviours.
Sometimes used interchangeably with advocacy,
but a more specifically targeted effort to influence a specific piece of government legislation by working directly through or with legislative influencers and decision makers.
Resource mobilisation or fundraising
Targeting organisations or individuals who can provide funding for a health initiative, campaign
or advocacy outcome.
Employing mass marketing and advertising techniques and channels, developing campaigns for TV, radio and other mass media to raise awareness and persuade communities, population groups and individuals to change their health behaviours.
Social Mobilisation (SM); Behaviour Change Communications (BCC); Social and Behaviour Change Communications(SBCC); Health Communications (HC); Applied Behavioral Communications (ABC): names for similar approaches to developing social and psychologically-based communications interventions to change social settings, address barriers and get population groups and ultimately individuals to change their attitudes, beliefs and behaviours for better health.